Immunization / Vaccination Services
Immunization / Vaccination Services
Immunization / Vaccination Services includes preventive immunization of newborns, infants, children,adolescents, adults and elderly.
Immunization Schedule for children 0-5 years
Ist year vaccines Chart at a glance
|Vaccine Name||Time Period|
|BCG-HepatitisB-1-Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV)||At Birth|
|Hepatitis B -2||4-6 Weeks|
|IPV1,DTaP/DTwP1 + Hib1||6-8 Weeks|
|PNEUMO COCCAL VACCINE1||6-8 Weeks|
|IPV2,DTaP/DTwP2 + Hib2||10-12 Weeks|
|PNEUMO COCCAL VACCINE||10-12 Weeks|
|IPV3,DTaP/DTwP3 + Hib3||14-16 Weeks|
|PNEUMO COCCAL VACCINE3||14-16 Weeks|
|HEPATITIS B3 + OPV||6 Months|
|ROTAVIRUS - 1||6-8 Weeks|
|ROTAVIRUS – 2||12-14 Weeks|
|FLU VACCINE||6-8 Months|
|TYPHOID CONJUGATE VACCINE||1 Year|
About the Vaccines
Is a vaccine against TB or Tuberculosis and is given intradermally on left shoulder.
Injectable Polio Vaccine.
Oral Polio Vaccine.IPV is the preferred mode of immunization, however a combination of IPV and OPV will give better protection.
DTaP/DTwP Diphtheria,Tetanus Pertussis (Whooping Cough) - Pertussis
Vaccine is available as aP – (acellular Pertussis) and wP (whole cell pertussis).
They are both very effective vaccines, the only difference between the two being that ‘aP’ –gives lesser reactions like fever and pain at site of injection than ‘wP’.
‘aP’ is however very useful in children with history of birth anoxia/trauma and febrile convulsions etc.
Is a bacteria called Haemophilus Infuenzae B which causes blood infections (Septicemia), ear infections and brain infections (meningitis) in children under the age of 5 years.
This vaccine is given in 2 or 3 doses before the age of 6 months and is given orally to prevent diarrhoea caused by rotavirus.
Measles alone or Measles, Mumps and Rubella (German Measles) MMR may be given when the baby is 9 months complete.
Is given from the age of 7-9 months. Two doses in the first year – 4-6 weeks apart.
TYPHOID CONJUGATE VACCINE
Prevents typhoid fever. This may be repeated 1-2 years later. No subsequent doses are required.
Vaccines in 2nd year
|Vaccine Name||Time Period|
|MMR (Mumps,Measles,Rubella)||At 15 months|
|Chicken Pox or Variculla Vaccine||At 15 months|
|PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINE 1st booster||At 15-18 months|
|IPV, DTaP/DTwP/Hib 1st booster||At 15-18 months|
|Hepatitis A Vaccine||Given in 2 doses at 6 months interval,Starting from age 18-19 months|
|Flu Vaccine||Given in a single dose every year|
Vaccines in 3rd and 4th year
Flu Vaccine may be given every year .
Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine may be repeated at age 2 years. If no typhoid vaccine has been given earlier, it can be administered at any age – and a booster dose may be give after 2 years.
Meningococcal Vaccine prevents one of the most serious forms of meningitis caused by meningococci. It is given in a single dose (in India) after the age of 2 years – till adolescent and young adulthood.
Vaccines at 4 ½ - 5 years
DTaP +IPV booster , MMR and Chicken Pox Boosters
And any catch up vaccines which may not have been given for any reason earlier.
SO YOU THOUGHT VACCINES WERE ONLY FOR CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS !
HERE’S WHY – AND WHAT OF VACCINES IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS.
VACCINES FOR OLDER CHILDREN/ADOLESCENTS,ADULTS,ELDERLY : VACCINES PREVENT DISEASE, DISABILITY AND DEATH IN ALL AGE GROUPS.
Vaccines for older children to adolescents - 5-6 years to 18 years.
Vaccines for adults.
Vaccines for the elderly.
AGE GROUP – VACCINES FOR OLDER CHILDREN & ADOLESCENTS (5-6 YEARS TO 18 YEARS)
|10 years||dTap booster|
|15-18 years||dTap booster|
HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) vaccine, also known to cause Cancer of the Cervix (mouth of uterus) given in 3 doses a) zero, 1 and 6 months
b) zero, 2 and 6 months.
This vaccine is recommended for females from 10 years to 45 years age
From pre-sexual exposure till 45 years – since the HPV virus is transmitted by way of sexual exposure from male to female.
Meningococcal Vaccine prevents most deadly meningitis caused by MENINGOCOCCUS is given from age 2 years to 50 years but more commonly to children and adolescents, school going or in hostels.
Its given as a single dose vaccine.
VACCINES FOR ADULTS
a) Needs to be given to all adults every 5-10 years.
b) No in between doses are required in between for trivial injuries – unless there is a major accident/trauma.
Hepatitis B Vaccine
a) Is given in 3 doses at zero, one and 6 month interval.
b) If given in childhood, it does not need to be repeated later at any stage.
c) But if not vaccinated in childhood, all adults must receive this vaccine irrespective of age.
a) Typhoid is a water and food borne disease – which can be transmitted to both children and adults – since our public hygiene leaves a lot to be desired.
b) Two doses of this relatively new conjugate typhoid vaccines given at 1-2 years intervals gives long lasting immunity. So this vaccine is a must for children, adolescents and adults.
Hepatitis A Vaccine
Hepatitis A Vaccine is given for prevention against hepatitis A or the water borne jaundice and is recommended for infants, children, adolescents and adults in 2 doses at zero and 6 months interval.
VACCINES FOR THE ELDERLY
Prevenar 13 is a vaccine which must be given to the elderly in a single dose after the age of 55 years to prevent bacterial pneumonia caused by the bacteria Pneumococcus.
a) Is administered every year from age 6-7 months onwards.
b) It is especially important for the elderly i.e. 50 years plus.
Immunization and vaccination services for small children up to 18 years
What is immunization and how it benefits the child?
Immunization is the process wherein protection is provided to the healthy child against infectious germs. Vaccination prepares the body of the child how to eliminate the disease-causing agents from their system. It is the safest way of keeping the child healthy as each vaccine is first researched, designed, and clinically tested. The chances of a child having certain serious diseases are nullified by the use of vaccines.
This effective weapon also prevents the possibility of death, associated stress, and expenses of becoming ill. If a healthy child is vaccinated for a specific disease, it does not mean that the immunity is lowered for fighting other diseases. There are rare chances that the child develops the same disease for which he/she is vaccinated.
How do vaccines help protect the child from disease-causing microorganisms?
A vaccine is prepared by using a weakened/killed form, or the parts of the bacteria or virus (using vectors) that cause a particular disease. When a vaccine is given to the child, a protective response against the targeted disease-causing agent is activated by a generation of pathogen-specific antibodies.
These antibodies that flow in the blood serum react with the microbial antigen and neutralizes its effect or kill the pathogen when it enters the child's body. The vaccines prepare the body by creating a memory for the same pathogen and give permanent protection to the child in case of subsequent episodes of actual infection. Hence, the child will not feel sick as the body is prepared to fight against the illness. This is known as active immunity provided to children when natural passive immunity from the mother has declined.
Why is there a particular schedule for the administration of each vaccination?
The immunization begins soon after the child is born. Some vaccines are administered immediately after birth such as BCG (tuberculosis), OPV (polio), and Hepatitis B that are maternally transmitted. The efficacy of a vaccine is best when given to the child at the recommended time, with the right number of doses, and through the correct routes as mentioned in the National Immunization schedule. The age is decided based on the maximum incidence of a specific disease in that time of life. Similarly, the number of doses is recommended based on the level of protection needed. If the child is vaccinated lately as scheduled, it may leave the child unprotected from serious diseases for a longer time. The cases of diseased child or their deaths are significantly reduced when the vaccine is given at the age that ensures maximum protection.
Are there any side effects on the child who has been immunized?
Sometimes after getting a vaccine shot, the child may develop soreness or redness at the site of injection and a low-grade fever. Serious risk factors such as allergic reactions or seizures are very rare. The increase in body temperature after vaccination is a normal reaction indicating that the vaccine is working to provide an active immunity. But it doesn’t mean that the vaccine has not been effective or requires to be re-administered if the child does not develop any fever. Every year, the children are getting vaccinated safely as the research and clinical trials enhance the safety of immunization. Moreover, various studies have shown that there is no link that vaccines can cause a developmental disorder (autism) in a child. If there is any serious side effect associated with any vaccine, its method of development may be changed to minimize risks.
Which vaccines are available for children below 18 years of age?
The general pediatrician will give a schedule of vaccination for the child which should be followed from birth. Some of them require booster doses while for others one shot is enough. Currently, the following vaccines are being provided to children and youngsters below 18 years under the Immunization program:
- BCG vaccine- for tuberculosis
- Hepatitis B vaccine- for combating Hepatitis B infection
- OPV (oral), IPV (injectable)- for poliomyelitis
- RVV- for rotavirus diarrhea
- DTaP- Diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis/DTwP - Diphtheria, tetanus and whole cell pertossis
- MMR- Measles, mumps, and rubella
- TT- Tetanus vaccine
- PCV-pneumococcal pneumonia
- JE- Japanese encephalitis
- Hepatitis A vaccine
- Varicella vaccine
- Human papillomavirus vaccine
- Haemophilus influenza (type B) vaccine
- Influenza vaccine (IIV-inactivated or LAIV4-live, attenuated form)
- Meningococcal serogroup A, C, W, Y vaccination
- Pentavalent vaccine- Diphtheria, Pertussis (whooping cough), Hepatitis B, Hib infection (causing meningitis and pneumonia), and Tetanus.